For example, WOBTAX and VICTORY both produced convincing smiley faces (where the overprinted characters produced the solid background, and pixels untouched by any of the characters produced the actual design).This developed into a sophisticated set, particularly in combination with superscript and subscript.Dodge's Manual in 1908 documented the reintroduction of "love and kisses" as the number 88.
The USPTO eventually sided with Walmart and rejected The Smiley Company's application, due to widespread use of smiley face designs.
This smiley presumably inspired many later emoticons; the most basic graphic emoticon that depicts this is in fact a small yellow smiley face.
In a New York Times interview in April 1969, Alden Whitman asked writer Vladimir Nabokov: "How do you rank yourself among writers (living) and of the immediate past?
Four vertical typographical emoticons were published in 1881 by the U. satirical magazine Puck, with the stated intention that the publication's letterpress department thus intended to "lay out ...
all the cartoonists that ever walked." In 1912, Ambrose Bierce proposed "an improvement in punctuation – the snigger point, or note of cachinnation: it is written thus ‿ and presents a smiling mouth.