It is certain that the Epiphany festival in the East very early admitted a more or less marked commemoration of the Nativity, or at least of the Angeli ad Pastores , the most striking "manifestation" of Christ's glory on that occasion. It will be noticed, first, if Clement does not expressly deny that the Church celebrated the Epiphany in his time at Alexandria, he at least implies that she did not. On the vigil of the feast (5 Jan.) a procession left Jerusalem for Bethlehem and returned the following morning. To this day, the blessing of the waters by the dipping into river, sea, or lake of a crucifix, and by other complicated ritual, is a most popular ceremony. 696) denounces the practice as an irrationabilis novitas ; yet the Council of Gerona (can. Simultaneously, therefore, with this appointment the custom prevailed of burning lights until the sixth day." It is simpler to say that, about the time of the diffusion of the December celebration in the East, the West took up the Oriental January feast, retaining all its chief characteristics, though attaching overwhelming importance, as time went on, to the apparition of the Magi. cit.) that not only did water in many places turn into wine on 6 Jan., but that whole rivers, and probably the Nile, experienced a similar miracle ; nothing of this sort is noted in the West. The antiphon to the Benedictus runs: "To-day the Church is joined to her celestial spouse, because in Jordan Christ doth wash her sins ; the Magi hasten with gifts to the royal marriage-feast, and the guests exult in the water turned to wine." O Sola refers to the Magi only. Nor is this the place to discuss the legends of the Three Kings, which will be found in the article MAGI. Moreover, the first actual reference to the ecclesiastical feast of the Epiphany (Ammianus Marcellinus, XXI, ii), in 361, appears to be doubled in Zonaras (XIII, xi) by a reference to the same festival as that of Christ's Nativity . G., XLI, 936) says that the sixth of January is hemera genethlion toutestin epiphanion , Christ's Birthday, i.e. Still less can we think that 6 January was then observed by the Church as holy. At the second hour the services were held in the splendidly decorated Golgotha church, after which that of the Anastasis was visited. A vivid account is quoted by Neale ("Holy Eastern Church ", Introduction, p. the Greek, Syriac, Coptic, and Russian versions, edited or translated from the original texts by John, Marquess of Bute, and A. The people consider that all ailments, spiritual and physical, can be cured by the application of the blessed water. iv) condemned it in 517, and Victor Vitensis alludes to it as the regular practice of the (Roman-) African Church (De Persec. The Leonine Sacramentary is defective here; but Leo's eight homilies on the Theophania (in P. The Magnificat antiphon of Second Vespers reads: "We keep our Holy Day adored with three miracles : today a star led the Magi to the crib, today wine was made from water at the marriage, today in Jordan Christ willed to be baptized by John to save us." On the Epiphany it was a very general custom to announce the date of Easter, and even of other festivals, a practice ordered by many councils, e.g. Kellner, Heortologie (Freiburg im Br., 1906); Funk in Kraus, Real-Encyclopädie , s. Feste ; Bingham, Antiquities of the Christian Church (London, 1708-22), Bk. iv; Usener, Religionsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen (Bonn, 1889).
The Machabean kingdom is sometimes called Judea by Josephus (Antiq. Elsewhere, however, the same historian restricts Judea proper to more correct limits. In later lists of bishops we find names to add to these: Joppa, Anthedon, Diocletianopolis, Raphia, etc. From the fourth century to the Arab invasion the monastic life rose to a great height; it is enough to mention the foundations of St. Between the plain and the main group of mountains there is a stretch of well-cultivated hilly country without any important towns.
The wâdys Farah, Kelt, Audjeh, Fusail, Far'â, not to mention the important springs of Eliseus, Doûk, Nuwaïmeh, Feshkha, and Engaddi, contribute their waters to the Ghôr and the Dead Sea throughout the entire year.
The Roman roads with which Judea was formerly scored are now impracticable.
There is also a narrow-gauge railroad from Jerusalem to Jaffa, the latter being the chief port of Judea, Gaza being the second. There are, however, a few special industries: at Jerusalem, carving in olive wood; at Bethlehem, carving in mother-of-pearl; at Gaza, goat's hair tissue, slippers, and soap; at Hebron, leather and water-bottles, jars and glass trinkets.
The Mutessariflik of Jerusalem, which nearly corresponds to the ancient Judea, has an area of 8484 square miles, and comprises 328 cities, towns, villages, and hamlets, with an aggregate population of 350,000, of whom 100,000 are non-Mussulman.