They carried out strong resistance to American incursions in the decades after the American Civil War, in a series of "Indian Wars", which were frequent up until the 1890s. forced a series of treaties and land cessions by the tribes, and established reservations for them in many western states. Contemporary Native Americans today have a unique relationship with the United States because they may be members of nations, tribes, or bands of Native Americans who have sovereignty or independence from the government of the United States. citizens were granted citizenship in 1924 by the Congress of the United States.The coming of the transcontinental railroad increased pressures on the western tribes. Their societies and cultures flourish within a larger population of descendants of immigrants (both voluntary and slave): African, Asian, Middle Eastern, and European peoples. Further information: Settlement of the Americas, Paleo-Indians, and Pre-Columbian era Map showing the approximate location of the ice-free corridor and specific Paleoindian sites (Clovis theory).The terms used to refer to Native Americans are controversial; according to a 1995 US Census Bureau set of home interviews, most of the respondents with an expressed preference refer to themselves as American Indians or Indians.In the last 500 years, Afro-Eurasian migration to the Americas has led to centuries of conflict and adjustment between Old and New World societies.Their cultures were quite different from those of the agrarian, proto-industrial immigrants from western Eurasia.
These were complex nomadic cultures based on using horses and traveling seasonally to hunt bison. agents encouraged Native Americans to adopt European-style farming and similar pursuits, but the lands were often too poor to support such uses.and from there migrating along the Pacific Coast and into the interior.Linguists, anthropologists and archeologists believe their ancestors comprised a separate migration into North America, later than the first Paleo-Indians.The Clovis culture ranged over much of North America and also appeared in South America.The culture is identified by the distinctive Clovis point, a flaked flint spear-point with a notched flute, by which it was inserted into a shaft.