Conclusion Next down; Top Surveying of public opinion has become an important part of public life in democracies.
With just a little knowledge and practice, any student can master the distinctions of good and bad, or bad and ugly public polls.
° Welcome to the Harris Poll Online and Harris Interactive - online polling ° Knowledge Networks - The consumer information company for the 21st century - online polling The NES Guide to Public Opinion and Electoral Behavior - American National Election Studies has queries in 9 categories from 1948 through 2002. ° ABCNEWS Polling Guide from Gary Langer, head of the ABC News Polling Unit Numeracy - Competent interpretation of statistics and data-based information is essential for sifting out the good from the bad and the ugly. Besides that, these sites contain rich collections of abuse and plain old bunkum that will delight and repel us in comparable proportions. Telling the Truth About Damned Lies and Statistics, The Chronicle Review, May 4. Campaigns & Elections -63, 70 Push Polls - a biographical source compilation CBS News: The Truth About Push Polls February 14, 2000 180605 by Kathleen Frankovic pushpolls (The Case Against Negative Push Polls), from Michael Sternberg; a compilation of cases, including the one immediately below Public Opinion Strategies Push Poll from Mother Jones; a reproduced full poll that looks legitimate but is actually designed to condemn a specific candidate; the serious abuse starts with Question no. Push Me, Poll You By William Saletan in Slate (February 15, 2000) on South Carolina push polling by the Bush campaign against presidential primary rival John Mc Cain in February 2000 Skepticism - This combination of attitude and education is a mighty valuable approach for any who want to avoid fraud. is a clearinghouse site ° Polling - Public Opinion Online - "An independent, nonpartisan resource on trends in American public opinion " ° NAES 2004 Home Page (National Annenberg Election Survey ) from The Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania ° Presidential Trial Heats: A Daily Time Series and Documentation for time series extraction from James Stimson, University of North Carolina Embarrassments in polling history - Literary Digest of 1936 and other royal screw-ups: ° The Seattle Times Political Classroom Political Primer Polls ° Oops!! But there are others as well.) General Sources for Polls and Surveys: ° Copernicus Election Watch: Public Opinion Polls ° National Council on Public Polls ° The archive of polls surveys -- The Roper Center for Public Opinion Research ° Public Opinion from University of Michigan Documents Center ° Ruy Teixeira - Center for American Progress has weekly polling columns; parent site is Home - Center for American Progress with Ruy's columns shown under heading of "Public Opinion Watch" ° SSLIS Public Opinion Guide from Yale University Social Science Libraries and Information Services (SSLIS) ° PRI - Links to Public Opinion Research ° Public Opinion Polling in Canada (BP-371E) ° Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life - American Religious Landscapes and Political Attitudes (in 2004) How to interpret and judge polls: ° The Ten Commandments of Polling by Ken Blake, UNC-Chapel Hill ° 20 Questions A Journalist Should Ask from National Council on Public Polls (NCPP) ° A Press Warning on Push Polls from National Council on Public Polls ° Statement About Internet Polls from National Council on Public Polls - "there is a consensus that many web-based surveys are completely unreliable. Indeed, to describe them as "polls" is to misuse that term." ° NCPP Principles of Disclosure - a statement on ethics of proper polling ° Howard W.